Nerve Cell Diagram below is a typical illustration of this type of a human cell that makes up the cells in the nervous system. Nerve cell parts include nucleus, soma, dendrite, axon, myelin sheath, axon terminal, node of ranvier. This composition of the cell ensures that the neuron is functional with chemical signals transmitted to neighboring neurons.
All nerve cells respond to the external stimulus with an electric discharge that produces an electrical pulse of about 50-70 millivolts. This pulse is often referred to us an action potential. The electrical pulse travels down axon, which is the the fiber-like extension of the nerve cell. The speed of the impulse is about few tens of a meters per second and is a function of the fiber size. The transmission can be sent to a nearby nerve cell via a chemical neurotransmitter as soon as it gets to the axon terminal bundle. These types of nerve cells can be found all over the human body.